ZHCSHI5D March 2001 – February 2018 TPS791
A 0.1-µF or larger ceramic input bypass capacitor, connected between IN and GND and located close to the TPS791, is required for stability and to improve transient response, noise rejection, and ripple rejection. A higher-value electrolytic input capacitor may be necessary if large, fast-rise-time load transients are anticipated and the device is located several inches from the power source.
Like all low dropout regulators, the TPS791 requires an output capacitor connected between OUT and GND to stabilize the internal control loop. The minimum recommended capacitance is 1 µF. Any 1-µF or larger ceramic capacitor is suitable. The device is also stable with a 0.47-µF ceramic capacitor with at least 75 mΩ of ESR.
The internal voltage reference is a key source of noise in an LDO regulator. The TPS791 has a BYPASS pin that is connected to the voltage reference through a 250-kΩ internal resistor. The 250-kΩ internal resistor, in conjunction with an external bypass capacitor connected to the BYPASS pin, creates a low-pass filter to reduce the voltage reference noise and, therefore, the noise at the regulator output. In order for the regulator to operate properly, the current flow out of the BYPASS pin must be at a minimum because any leakage current creates an IR drop across the internal resistor thus creating an output error. Therefore, the bypass capacitor must have minimal leakage current.
For example, the TPS79118 exhibits approximately 15 µVRMS of output voltage noise using a 0.1-µF ceramic bypass capacitor and a 1-µF ceramic output capacitor. The output starts up slower as the bypass capacitance increases because of the RC time constant at the bypass pin that is created by the internal 250-kΩ resistor and external capacitor.