Figure 29 shows a unity-gain buffer driving a capacitive load. Equation 1 shows the transfer function for the circuit in Figure 29.Figure 29 does not show the open-loop output resistance of the operational amplifier (Ro).
The transfer function in Equation 1 has a pole and a zero. The frequency of the pole (fp) is determined by (Ro + RISO) and CLOAD. The RISO and CLOAD components determine the frequency of the zero (fz). A stable system is obtained by selecting RISO so that the rate of closure (ROC) between the open-loop gain (AOL) and 1/β is 20 dB per decade. Figure 30 shows the concept. The 1/β curve for a unity-gain buffer is 0 dB.
Typically, ROC stability analysis is simulated. The validity of the analysis depends on multiple factors, especially the accurate modeling of Ro. In addition to simulating the ROC, a robust stability analysis includes a measurement of overshoot percentage and AC gain peaking of the circuit using a function generator, oscilloscope, and gain and phase analyzer. Phase margin is then calculated from these measurements. Table 3 shows the overshoot percentage and AC gain peaking that correspond to phase margins of 45° and 60°. For more details on this design and other alternative devices that can replace the TLVx172, see the Capacitive Load Drive Solution Using an Isolation Resistor precision design.
|PHASE MARGIN||OVERSHOOT||AC GAIN PEAKING|