SBAA547 May 2022 ADS124S06 , ADS124S08 , TVS1401

Specification | Minimum | Maximum | |
---|---|---|---|

Overstress Signal |
Voltage
(V |
–30 V |
+30 V |

Absolute Maximum Input Voltage Rating – ADC (AVDD = 5 V, AVSS = 0 V) |
Voltage – Analog Input (V |
AVSS – 0.3 V |
AVDD + 0.3 V |

Current – Analog Input (I |
–10 mA |
+10 mA |

**Design
Description**

This circuit
shows a solution to protect ADS124S08 delta-sigma ADC from electrical overstress
(EOS) for a resistance temperature detector (RTD) application. The protection
circuit is designed to provide protection against a ±30-V DC continuous fault as
well as a much higher transient fault. Protection against the ±30-V DC fault is
needed in case the input terminals are inadvertently connected to the DC supply. The
±24 V is a standard DC supply in industrial systems, so ±30-V protection provides a
design margin. The solution is developed for 3-wire RTD input with PT100 RTD sensor
and the protection method can also be used for 2-wire, 4-wire RTD input and PT1000
RTD sensor. The protection circuitry includes an external transient voltage
suppressor (TVS) diode and a current-limiting resistor to implement an external
protection clamp for overstress signal and maintain a minimum impact on measurement
accuracy. This circuit is useful in the temperature controller and analog input module of the *Programmable Logic
Controller* in factory automation and control system. For protecting
high-voltage SAR ADC from electrical overstress, see the *Input protection for
high-voltage ADC circuit with TVS Diode* and *Circuit for protecting
ADC with TVS diode and PTC fuse* circuit designs. For protecting
low-voltage SAR ADC from electrical overstress, see *Circuit for protecting
low-voltage SAR ADC from electrical overstress with minimal impact on
performance*.

**Design Goals**

System Specification | Goal | Measured |
---|---|---|

Overstress Voltage | ±30 V | No damage on ADS124S08 |

Accuracy (uncalibrated, –40°C to 85°C) | ±0.5% | < ±0.05% |

**Design Notes**

- The SMBJ14CA bidirectional TVS
diodes from Bourns® are selected to protect each
input of the ADS124S08 from electrical overstress signals by considering:
- Select SMBJ series TVS diode for proper package size and the ability of 600-W power dissipation
- Select bidirectional 14-V standoff voltage for minimum power dissipation on current-limiting resistors

- The current-limiting resistors
R
_{P1}, R_{P2}, R_{P3}, R_{P4}and R_{P5}are used to limit fault current for protecting the TVS diodes and ADC, also helping to clamp the input overstress signal on the diodes by selecting the proper resistor value. The high-resistance value of R_{P2}, R_{P3}, R_{P4}, and R_{P5}is exactly the same as the resistance value of R_{P1}to avoid any additional errors caused by the resistance mismatch when the leakage current of TVS diodes flows through these resistors. Note that the R_{Lead1}, R_{Lead2}, and R_{Lead3}in*Input Protection Circuity for ADC From Electrical Overstress*are equivalent lead wire resistance. - Keep the capacitance value of differential capacitor ≥ 10 × common-mode capacitor. Keep the bandwidth of differential filter ≥ 10 × data rate.
- See the Electrical Overstress on Data Converters in the TI Precision Labs - ADCs video series. This series discusses the details on protection solutions for different types of data converters including theoretical explanation, diode selection, current-limiting resistor selection, and test result.

**Component Selection**

- The ADC input voltage range is
set as the maximum voltage (V
_{in_Abs}) before turning on the internal ESD diode. The input current range is the maximum current that the internal ESD diode can support continuously. - The maximum voltage on ADS124S08
is 5.3 V when the AVDD is 5 V, so any positive electrical overstress signal
higher than which 5.3 V should be clamped for protecting the input of the
ADS124S08. In this solution, the SMBJ14CA bidirectional TVS diode is selected to
protect the ADC from an electrical overstress signal. This diode will break down
between 15.6 V and 17.9 V and limit the input voltage. This voltage level
exceeds the absolute maximum of the ADC, but current-limiting resistors in
conjunction with the ADS124S08S internal ESD diodes will protect the device.
Part Number MFG Reverse Standoff Voltage (V _{R})Breakdown Voltage (V _{BR})Clamping Voltage Max (V _{C}at I_{PP})Reverse Leakage Max

(I_{R}at V_{R})Peak pulse Current (I

_{PP})Peak Power Dissipation (P

_{PP})Steady State Power Dissipation (P _{PP})Min

Max

SMBJ14CA Bourns 14 V 15.6 17.9 23.2 V 1 μA 25.9 A 600 W 5 W - This design shows a protection
solution for a single IDAC current, low-side external reference and 3-wire RTD
measurement. The current-limiting resistor R
_{P1}in the IDAC channel AIN5 is more critical because the node voltage on the AIN5 pin is limited by the maximum compliance voltage which is 4.6 V for 5-V AVDD supply. A high-resistance value of R_{P1}and R_{1}is helpful to limit fault current and protect the ADC in a fault condition; however, the high-resistance value of these resistors increases the voltage on the AIN5 pin in a normal operation to violate the compliance voltage. The protection solution is designed to protect the ADC from miswiring ±24-V power supply to the input of RTD measurement circuit. The ±30-V fault signals are considered for a design margin. The absolute maximum input current rating of ADS124S08 is ±10 mA, so ±5-mA current is used for a margin and limit flowing into ADC input and ±25-mA total fault current is limited to flow through R_{P1}.EOS Fault Voltage ADC Input Voltage (Abs) ADC Input Current Fault Current V

_{EOS_max}+30 V

V

_{in_max}+5.3 V

I

_{ADC_max}+5 mA

I

_{fault_max}+25 mA

V

_{EOS_min}–30 V

V

_{in_min}–0.3 V

I

_{ADC_min}–5 mA

I

_{fault_min}–25 mA

The R

_{P1}and R_{1}are determined by the largest resistor values from the following equations:For positive overstress voltage +30 V,

${R}_{P1}\ge \frac{{V}_{EOS\_max}-{V}_{BR\_min}}{{I}_{fault\_max}}=\frac{30V-15.6V}{25mA}=576\Omega \mathrm{}\mathrm{}\left(\mathrm{r}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}590\Omega \right)$${R}_{1}\ge \frac{{V}_{BR\_min}-{V}_{in\_max}}{{I}_{ADC\_max}}=\frac{15.6V-5.3V}{5mA}=2.06k\Omega \mathrm{}\mathrm{}\left(\mathrm{r}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}2.2k\Omega \right)$For negative overstress voltage –30 V,

${R}_{P1}\ge \frac{{V}_{EOS\_min}-\left(-{V}_{BR\_min}\right)}{{I}_{fault\_min}}=\frac{-30V-\left(-15.6V\right)}{-25mA}=576\Omega \mathrm{}\mathrm{}\left(\mathrm{r}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}590\Omega \right)$${R}_{1}\ge \frac{{-V}_{BR\_min}-{V}_{in\_max}}{{I}_{ADC\_min}}=\frac{-15.6V-\left(-0.3V\right)}{-5mA}=3.06k\Omega \mathrm{}\mathrm{}\left(\mathrm{r}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}\mathrm{u}\mathrm{p}\mathrm{}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{o}\mathrm{}\mathrm{s}\mathrm{t}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{a}\mathrm{r}\mathrm{d}\mathrm{}3.4k\Omega \right)$The larger value 3.4-kΩ resistor is selected for R

_{1}and a 590-Ω resistor is selected for R_{P1}.In the following equations, the dissipated power is calculated in R

_{1}and R_{P1}during a negative electrical overstress fault event which is the worst case for these resistors. The objective is to make sure that the correct power rating is used on the resistors, R_{1}and R_{P1}.${P}_{RP1}=\frac{{\left({V}_{EOS\_min}-\left(-{V}_{BR\_min}\right)\right)}^{2}}{{R}_{P1}}=\frac{{\left(-30V-\left(-15.6V\right)\right)}^{2}}{590\Omega}=351mW$Hence, the P

_{RP1}is selected as 0.5 W for R_{P1}with extra design margin.${P}_{R1}=\frac{{\left({-V}_{BR\_min}-{V}_{in\_min}\right)}^{2}}{{R}_{1}}=\frac{{\left(-15.6V-\left(-0.3V\right)\right)}^{2}}{3.4k\Omega}=68.85mW$Hence, the P

_{R1}is selected as 0.1 W for R_{1}with extra design margin. - The resistance of the PT100
sensor is approximately 20 Ω at –200°C and 400 Ω at +850°C. The resistance of
R
_{REF}is determined by the maximum voltage across the PT100 (R_{RTD}) when the I_{IDAC}current flows through the PT100. The 0.5-mA single I_{IDAC}current from AIN5 is selected and configured to keep the error low which is caused by self-heating on the PT100. The PGA gain on the ADS124S08 is set to 4. The minimum voltage (V_{REF_min}**)**on the R_{REF}is calculated by the following equations:${V}_{RTD\_max}={I}_{IDAC}\times {R}_{RTD\_max}=0.5mA\times 400\Omega =0.2V$${V}_{REF\_min}={V}_{RTD\_max}\times Gain=0.2V\times 4=0.8V$The voltage (V_{REF}) on the R_{REF}is set to 1 V for a margin. The resistance of R_{REF}is determined by the following equation:${R}_{REF}=\frac{{V}_{REF}}{{I}_{DAC}}=\frac{1V}{0.5mA}=2k\Omega $ - The input resistor in parallel
with differential and common-mode capacitors in other channels is used to filter
the noise from the front-end circuit. The exact resistor value is not critical
because there is no compliance voltage limit on these channels and there is no
IDAC current flowing through it. ${R}_{flt}>{R}_{1}=3.4k\Omega $${R}_{flt}<10k\Omega $${\Rightarrow R}_{flt}=4.99k\Omega $${f}_{in\_Diff}>10\times Data\_Rate$$Data\_Rate=200Hz$${\Rightarrow f}_{in\_Diff}=3kHz$${C}_{flt\_diff}=\frac{1}{2\pi \times {f}_{in\_diff}\times \left({R}_{RTD}+2\times {R}_{flt}+2\times {R}_{P}\right)}$$=\frac{1}{2\pi \times 3kHz\times \left(400\Omega +2\times 4.99k\Omega +2\times 590\Omega \right)}=4.6nF$Hence, a standard value 4.7 nF is selected for C
_{flt_diff}.${C}_{flt}=\frac{{C}_{flt\_diff}}{10}=\frac{4.7nF}{10}=470pF$${C}_{ref}={C}_{flt}=470pF$${R}_{flt\_ref}={R}_{flt}=4.99k\Omega $

**Accuracy Measured on Hardware**

*ADS124S08 Test Board With Input Protection Circuity* shows the
ADS124S08 EOS test hardware board which is designed for RTD measurement and is
protected using the SMBJ14CA TVS diode from Bourns and TVS1401 bidirectional TVS
diode from Texas Instruments. The isolated power supply and digital communication
circuit on the test board are designed for EMC (electromagnetic compatibility)
testing which are not covered in this document. The test board utilizes the onboard
TM4C1294NCPDT Tiva™Arm® Processors to communicate with the ADC via
serial peripheral interface (SPI) and provide communication with a PC over a
universal serial bus (USB) interface. The software including the Delta-Sigma ADC
EvaluaTIon Software installer and ADS124S08 Device Package installer from the EVM tool page are used to collect conversion data from the ADC and check
the performance.

The following image shows the test setup for measuring accuracy and performance.

The next images show the measured accuracy performance for full and zero scale RTD values over ambient temperature from –40°C to +85°C. The purpose of this test is to confirm that the TVS diode leakage did not introduce a significant error across the system ambient temperature range. The test result shows the measured accuracy (< ±0.05%) with all the protection circuitry including TVS diodes and current-limiting resistors across the entire temperature range meets the expected accuracy (±0.5%).

**Resolution Measured on Hardware**

The next image shows the measured effective number of bits (ENOB) and noise-free resolution with bidirectional TVS diode TVS1401 from Texas Instruments. This test shows that the protection circuit has no significant impact on the ADC noise performance.

Measured Result | ENOB (Bits) | Noise-Free Resolution (Bits) |
---|---|---|

High Temp (+85°C) | 21.2 | 18.8 |

Room Temp (+25°C) | 21.3 | 19.0 |

Cold Temp (–40°C) | 21.5 | 19.1 |

Test Condition: low side reference, 3-wire RTD with TVS1401 protection solution. |

**ADC Input Overvoltage
Condition**

The circuit
was tested and verified with overstress DC signals. To see how the protection
circuit works, an overstress sine wave signal (±60 V_{peak-peak}) is applied
to the input of the EOS test board. Simulated EOS Signal and Clamped Waveform on IDAC Channel Input shows
the clamped waveform which was captured on the AIN5 input of the ADS124S08. The
external TVS diode has been turned on and the overdriven signal has been clamped to
the voltage between –200 mV and +6.4 V. Note that the clamped waveform is captured
on the IDAC channel input (AIN5), so the resistance value of R_{1} is
limited because of the compliance voltage limit on the ADS124S08. The
R_{flt} resistors on other channels of the ADS124S08 are not limited by
the compliance voltage, so a large resistance value of R_{flt} is used to
limit the fault current to the ADC input and the overvoltage sine wave signal is
clamped to be less than +5.3 V absolute maximum input voltage on the ADS124S08. The
ADC device is successfully protected from external electrical overstress
signal.

**Design Featured Devices**

Device | Key Features | Link | Other Possible Devices |
---|---|---|---|

ADS124S08 |
Low power, low noise, 24-bit, 4-kSPS, 12-channel delta-sigma ADC with PGA and voltage reference |
ADS124S08 | ADCS |

ADS124S06 |
Low power, low noise, 24-bit, 4-kSPS, 6-channel delta-sigma ADC with PGA and voltage reference |
ADS124S06 | ADCS |

TVS1401 |
14-V bidirectional flat-clamp surge protection device |
TVS1401 |