The 2802x devices may be clocked from either one of the internal zero-pin oscillators (INTOSC1/INTOSC2), the on-chip crystal oscillator, or from an external clock input. Regardless of the clock source, in PLL-enabled and PLL-bypass mode, if the input clock to the PLL vanishes, the PLL will issue a limp-mode clock at its output. This limp-mode clock continues to clock the CPU and peripherals at a typical frequency of 1–5 MHz.
When the limp mode is activated, a CLOCKFAIL signal is generated that is latched as an NMI interrupt. Depending on how the NMIRESETSEL bit has been configured, a reset to the device can be fired immediately or the NMI watchdog counter can issue a reset when it overflows. In addition to this, the Missing Clock Status (MCLKSTS) bit is set. The NMI interrupt could be used by the application to detect the input clock failure and initiate necessary corrective action such as switching over to an alternative clock source (if available) or initiate a shut-down procedure for the system.
If the software does not respond to the clock-fail condition, the NMI watchdog triggers a reset after a preprogrammed time interval. Figure 6-11 shows the interrupt mechanisms involved.